Phoenix - Baden IX (IIa old)
The first express locomotive
The "Phoenix" from the Grand Duchy of Baden State Railway is the only surviving original Crampton-type locomotive in Germany. At the DB Museum, it is exhibited alongside the fastest steam locomotive of the Bavarian State Railways, the S 2/6. The difference is immediately visible: the Phoenix has only one driving axle, which is located behind the boiler. This gives the locomotive a much lower centre of gravity than the S 2/6. The design was conceived by British engineer Thomas Russel Crampton. It was long thought that the smooth running of the Crampton locomotives was down to this low centre of gravity. This turned out to be untrue. In fact, the design resulted in a better weight distribution, improving the engines' stability. Crampton locomotives were widely used in France and southern Germany in the second half of the 19th century. However, their low weight and lack of tractive effort meant they gradually fell from favour.